The particularities of the hydrocarbon-dependent political economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) raise critical questions about how they will adjust to changing global energy markets and what the repercussions will be beyond their borders. Internally, growing populations and a rentier social contract built on revenues from fossil fuels imply severe potential social impacts from energy transitions. Regionally, as the wealthiest MENA states, the GCC countries are the largest carbon emitters in MENA and also the best equipped to avoid the worst effects of climate change – raising questions about how environmental harms are distributed.
- Camille Ammoun, Independent Political Economy Analyst
- Crystal Ennis, University Lecturer, Political Economy of the Middle East, Leiden University, The Netherlands
- Manal Shehabi, Senior Research Fellow, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies
- Mohammad Al-Saidi, Assistant professor of public policy, Department of International Affairs, Qatar University
Moderated by Sarine Karajerjian, ARI Director of Environmental Politics Program